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  1. Competition Success Review
  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review
  3. Journal list menu
  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia: An Overview

ended March 31,, we have published a PDF version of Nikon CSR. REPORT Sharing information via the in-house magazine, the intranet, and. nilad Water Services Sustainability Report. Omnicom of material impacts listed. Number of Performance. Indicators reported. PDF. The magazine consists of informations and articles about CSR in lebanon and all over the world. All; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Date.

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WELCOME TO Competition Success Review. Competition Success Review is an immensely popular magazine meant for students preparing for competitive. PDF | On 23, , Ross Brennan and others published The End of healthy representation of articles dealing with CSR in the Journal of. Article (PDF Available) · January with 21, Reads A framework of six core characteristics of the CSR concept is introduced in order . of dedicated magazines, newsletters, email lists, and websites not only contribute to providing an.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The author reviews the corporate social responsibility CSR literature that includes the individual level of analysis referred to as micro CSR in the article based on articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward—specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology. Keywords: corporate social responsibility, sustainability, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, industrial and organizational psychology I—O psychology , corporate citizenship, social entrepreneurship Introduction Corporate social responsibility CSR is an increasingly important topic for organizations. Almost every major organization is engaged to some extent in CSR. In parallel, the growth of the scholarly CSR literature has been exponential. In a review of the literature, Aguinis and Glavas found that over half of the peer-reviewed articles on CSR have been published in the last decade. Although most of the extant literature on CSR is at the macro i. Moreover, in a survey of organizational psychologists conducted by the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, CSR was viewed as one of the top trends affecting the workplace Below,

Innovation is usually defined by including products and services, and management processes, so the Corporate Social Responsibility CSR is in itself an innovation for companies management of.

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The main reasons for innovating are to 1 improve the current situation achieved by, for example, reducing costs, raising margins and providing stability for the workforce , 2 open new horizons by, for example, repositioning perceptions of an organization and gaining a competitive advantage , 3 reinforce compliance by complying with legislation and fulfilling social and environmental responsibilities , and 4 enhance the organization's profile by attracting extra funding and potential alliance partners for example Bernardo, For all these reasons above, the aims of this paper are: 1 analyzing whether standardized management systems facilitate the implementation and integration of CSR within the technology company, 2 studying which is the influence of CSR in reputation and improvement of these companies and 3 if it has a positive impact on the economic performance of the company, as some authors suggest e.

For theses aims the work is divided into four sections. First, theoretical and empirical contributions related to the relationships between the variables that are included in the research model are reviewed.

Second, methodology employed to test the model is described. Third, results are presented, ending with conclusions and discussion of the results obtained.

This final section also highlights the main implications for future research. Research background and hypotheses It will conduct a review of the literature analyzing 1 integrated management systems, 2 the integration of CSR in technology companies, 3 Implementation of measures in technology companies CSR and 4 Performance in technology companies in order to propose research hypotheses.

Management systems Comparative studies between pairs of standards also appear in literature. The first model of integration based on a systemic approach was developed by Karapetrovic and Willborn including the management systems ISO and ISO In Fig.

Systems integration proposed by Karapetrovic and Jonker Therefore, and after review in reference to management systems integration, the first research hypothesis is proposed in the following terms:H1 The existence of previous standardized management systems has a positive effect on implementation of CSR measures.

The integration of MSs has been analyzed from a theoretical and practical point of view as such claim Bernardo, Casadesus, Karapetrovic, and Heras On the one hand we have several theoretical studies e. Asif et al. On the other hand, we have different empirical studies that complement the above e. Bernardo et al.

Therefore, the integration of MSs can be defined as putting together different function-specific management systems into a single and more effective IMS Bernardo et al. In regard to the integration of systems management, methodology and case studies exist in literature in order to help any organization to carry out the integration process Simon et al.

Nevertheless, the integration of CSR can be facilitated by standardized management processes previously implanted as claimed several authors Asif et al. Thus, the second hypothesis is proposed as follows:H2 The existence of previous standardized management systems positively influences the integration of CSR in the management system of the organization.

For example, Bernardo et al. However, the role of the people involved in integrated management systems is not significant, contrary to what is stated in the theoretical literature and in the standards of application.

In fact, in a study by Bernardo et al.

Moreover, most literature refers to this integration is based on standards such as SA Asif et al. Despite during the past three decades, CSR standards have increased in number and popularity. The guidance provided in this standard can allow any organization to achieve a truly integrated management system Pojasek, This standard provides guidance on: the principles of social responsibility, recognition of social responsibility and participation of stakeholders in seven key aspects and social responsibility issues and how to integrate socially responsible behavior into the organization Merlin et al.

H3 The integration of CSR has a positive influence on the internal improvement of the technology company. The guidance provided in this standard, as Pojasek states, allows an organization to achieve a system of sustainability management, and hence of its social responsibility, truly integrated. ISO can be perceived as an evolutionary step in standard innovation Hahn, In fact, ISO is in a strategic plan of the organization through which to develop a tactical plan in the different management systems Merlin et al.

H4 The integration of CSR has a positive influence on improving the external perception reputation of the technology company.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review

Crane et al. The link between stakeholder theory and creating shared value appears quite clear; however, this in and of itself of course does not prove a Scandinavian link to create shared value. That link is made within the content of the Nasi and the Strand and Freeman articles included within this special issue, where the foundational Scandinavian contributions to stakeholder theory are made evident.

This includes the introduction of the word stakeholder and the first ever stakeholder map in the management literature, both originating in Scandinavia. This may also be where a close connection between the previous stakeholder offerings from Scandinavia and the more recent creating shared-value concept become most apparent.

As depicted in Fig. Said another way, an inside-out perspective means that a corporation adopts a strategy to consider how it can sell more of its products and services to the world. This inside-out perspective is encouraged in the neoclassical economist view of the corporation in which the sole purpose of the corporation is to maximize profits.

In partnership with Scandinavian industry, Scandinavian management theorists have demonstrated an embracement of the outside-in approach to corporate strategy.

Scandinavian scholars Eric Rhenman and Bengt Stymne are considered pioneers in this outside-in consideration of the firm with their development of these strategic-management concepts Freeman et al. The concept of creating shared value is decidedly far more outside-in than previous offerings from mainstream strategic-management theories. This is puzzling, especially given the substantial changes in behavior in corporations around the world, both large and small, that have come as a direct result of the article.

Its shared value strategy was clear: by investing in physician training, patient education, and local production, the company believed it would dramatically improve the diagnosis of diabetes, a disease that was often unrecognized, and increase the demand for its insulin products. One may readily argue that this example of a shared-value strategy offered by Porter and company serves as further evidence that the concept of creating shared value has been in existence for some time in Scandinavia.

As example of the difference between the 5 Forces model and the traditional approach advocated in Scandinavia, consider how the company and its stakeholders of suppliers and customers are depicted in starkly different terms.

The Scandinavian stakeholder maps in Figs. Looking ahead, this regulation will likely influence cultural norms as it becomes more commonplace for women to hold formalized positions of power Strand Therefore, within this section, we artificially create a sharp distinction between institutional structures and cultural norms, but do so for purposes of discussion only.

In the next section, we will focus on cultural norms in a Scandinavian context. It requires but a short leap to associate the ideals of the Scandinavian social democracies with sustainability and CSR agendas.

Through attention to the promotion of egalitarian policies and consideration for the well being of current and future generations, Scandinavian social democracies espouse the virtues of stakeholder engagement, which has led to some of the highest levels of social and environmental regulations and programs on the planet.

Midttun et al. Campbell , p. It also ranked them very high in terms of the strong ethical behavior of their national corporations. All three are very open economies and, therefore, highly susceptible to the economic pressures of globalization, and all three have the sorts of institutions that I have argued will facilitate socially responsible corporate behavior.

These Scandinavian countries have much state regulation, self-regulation, corporatist bargaining—including well-organized business associations—and other mechanisms for institutionalized dialogue among firms and their stakeholders … So far, these institutions have persisted despite increased globalization.

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Morsing notes that this move and the comparatively high degree of engagement by Scandinavian governments to encourage CSR and sustainability activities by corporations may be considered directly related to the recent trend of Scandinavian governments to withdraw from areas that were previously public responsibilities. The government utilized CSR in the s to promote the social inclusiveness agenda, the pivotal concern of which was social integration through the domestic labor market.

In the early s, the government utilized CSR to promote an agenda primarily concerned with the national competitiveness and growth. Around , Vallentin notes the Danish government shifted to using CSR to address issues associated with global governance and accountability challenges. This represents a major new area for research that is directly associated with discussions regarding movement from implicit CSR toward explicit CSR in the Scandinavian context.

Matten and Moon identify the implicit—explicit CSR framework as a way to consider shifting institutional contexts that may encourage firms to engage implicitly or more explicitly with CSR. Implicit CSR normally consists of values, norms, and rules that result in mandatory and customary requirements for corporations to address stakeholder issues and that define proper obligations of corporate actors in collective rather than individual terms.

They normally consist of voluntary programs and strategies by corporations that combine social and business value and address issues perceived as being part of the social responsibility of the company. Historically speaking, Scandinavian firms have demonstrated traditions of implicit engagement with CSR.

Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia: An Overview

For example, within this special issue, Ihlen and von Weltzien Hoivik discuss how the label CSR has only recently been applied to the activities of Norwegian firms, whereas the implicit addressing of stakeholder concerns has a long tradition in Norway and is encouraged by the dominant cultural norms and institutional structures. They argue that CSR is only a recent term in Norway that has been introduced into the lexicon through forces coming from outside of Scandinavia—namely the United States.

The suite of challenges associated with these issues presents a field of inquiry for further studies. Additional potential institutional influencers on CSR and sustainability in Scandinavia that merit further investigations include mandatory employee representation on boards of directors BODs , longer term shareholders and more consolidated share ownership, and flatter pay structures Thomsen and Conyon Mandatory employee representation on BODs represents institutionalized stakeholder engagement between the corporation and its stakeholder beyond shareholders.

Moreover, employees tend to stay with a company far longer than the average share of a public company is held whereby this may also help to encourage longer term perspectives Stout Furthermore, a longer term perspective is embedded in Scandinavian ownership structures given that ownership of public firms tends to be much more consolidated and where the state and large foundations often hold large percentages of shares in firms for extended periods of time Thomsen and Conyon Finally, flatter pay structures in a Scandinavian context are evidenced by much more modest CEO to average worker pay ratios.

This proxy of organizational flatness may be considered an indicator of greater likelihood for stakeholder engagement given the relatively low power distance between individuals. The CEO to worker pay ratio will likely be increasingly drawn into the CSR and sustainability debates as global attention to increasing income inequality continues to grow Piketty and hence draw further attention to Scandinavia.

In this section, we engage with stereotypes, while heeding the implied warning from this satirical statement that stereotypes are often deployed as a sort of cultural shortcut. In this manner, instead of engaging with stereotypes, we can more prosperously discuss cultural generalizations, characterizations, and tendencies that may be more likely to be experienced in a Scandinavian context—and then consider what this may means when considering issues of CSR and sustainability.

While doing so we acknowledge our interpretations are subject to debate—and we encourage further debate to ensue. In these descriptions, Scandinavian management is depicted as encouraging cooperation, consensus building, participation, power sharing, consideration of the well being of stakeholders beyond just shareholders or some narrowly defined constituency, humility, and trustworthiness Grennes , ; Morsing et al.

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